Tremendous controversy exists today about legal treatment of hip hop music. Having just reached its thirtieth birthday, hip hop is now the second most popular type of music in the United States and an important musical and cultural force globally. The advent of hip hop has raised serious copyright law concerns. At the core of such concerns is the issue of sampling, or the use of pieces of existing recorded music within hip hop works, which has been deemed in some instances to constitute copyright infringement. Professor Arewa discusses issues that arise in the application of copyright to music generally as well as historical and cultural aspects of the hip hop debate. In discussions of music, particularly in the legal field, hip hop is considered within a tradition that values independent and autonomous authorship of musical works and that consequently reflects pervasive romantic author discourse. Within such discussions, the manner of music production of great masters of the European classical tradition may be seen as a model of musical production against which musical forms such as hip hop are often at least implicitly measured. The image of the classical tradition embedded in such discussions is, however, inaccurate and distorted. The classical music tradition is an invented tradition that was largely constructed in the nineteenth century and that no longer operates as an active tradition to which new works are being added in any quantity. Actual practice within the classical tradition varies significantly from the idealized imagery of this tradition evident in legal discourse about music. The image of the classical tradition is important because through characterizations of this tradition, hip hop musical production is distinguished from other methods of making music in a number of ways through the use of a series of implicit and explicit dichotomies. In looking at this classical tradition historically, however, it is clear that much continuity underlies the production of music generally, particularly in relation to musical borrowing, which was common in the European classical tradition in actuality as opposed to its constructed history. The varied uses of musical borrowing suggest that more careful consideration needs to be given to the extent to which copying and borrowing have been and can be a source of innovation within music and by extension elsewhere. Recognition of such borrowing needs to be incorporated into existing copyright frameworks as a basis for the development of commercial practices and liability rule based legal structures for treatment of music, including hip hop, which uses existing works in its creation.
“E’ chiaro che si può essere grandi mascalzoni e al tempo stesso grandi statisti. Pietro il grande modernizzò la Russia, ma strangolò il figlio con le sue stesse mani. Per non parlare di Stalin e Hitler… La grandezza politica dell’uomo non è necessariamente legata alla sua statura morale. Anzi, una certa predisposizione al male sono convinto che aiuti… Un grande leader non può che essere un attento conoscitore della natura umana e deve pertanto avere una certa familiarità con il lato oscuro che ciascun uomo tende solitamente a lasciare avvolto nella tenebra. Conoscere il male per averlo frequentato: è questa la caratteristica dei grandi leader politici così come dei santi.”—Francesco Cossiga [via il Nichilista]
At age 28, ten years after dropping out, Franco decided to go back to college. He enrolled in a couple of UCLA extension courses (literature, creative writing) and found them so magically satisfying—so safe and pure compared with the world of acting—that he threw himself back into his education with crazy abandon. He persuaded his advisers to let him exceed the maximum course load, then proceeded to take 62 credits a quarter, roughly three times the normal limit. When he had to work—to fly to San Francisco, for instance, to film Milk—he’d ask classmates to record lectures for him, then listen to them at night in his trailer. He graduated in two years with a degree in English and a GPA over 3.5. He wrote a novel as his honors thesis.
It was interesting timing. As soon as Franco decided his Hollywood career wasn’t enough, his Hollywood career exploded—which meant that his intellectual pursuits got picked up on the radar of the A-list Hollywood publicity machine. Which was, of course, baffled by all of it. Plenty of actors dabble in side projects—rock bands, horse racing, college, veganism—but none of them, and maybe no one else in the history of anything, anywhere, seems to approach extracurricular activities with the ferocity of Franco.
Take, for instance, graduate school. As soon as Franco finished at UCLA, he moved to New York and enrolled in four of them: NYU for filmmaking, Columbia for fiction writing, Brooklyn College for fiction writing, and—just for good measure—a low-residency poetry program at Warren Wilson College in North Carolina. This fall, at 32, before he’s even done with all of these, he’ll be starting at Yale, for a Ph.D. in English, and also at the Rhode Island School of Design. After which, obviously, he will become president of the United Nations, train a flock of African gray parrots to perform free colonoscopies in the developing world, and launch himself into space in order to explain the human heart to aliens living at the pulsing core of interstellar quasars.
“Volete tutta la verità sul suo (di Ronaldinho, ndr) peso? Eccola. L’ultimo aggiornamento sulla bilancia è il seguente: 83 chili e 700 grammi. L’anno scorso ha giocato tutto l’anno a 87 chili, in ritiro si è presentato con 86 chili, a Barcellona vinse il Pallone d’oro oscillando tra 81 e 82 chili».”—Massimiliano Allegri
We find a strong link between Congressional activity and stock market returns that persists even after controlling for known daily return anomalies. Stock returns are lower and volatility is higher when Congress is in session. This “Congressional Effect” can be quite large - more than 90% of the capital gains over the life of the DJIA have come on days when Congress is out of session. The Effect varies systematically with the public’s opinion of Congress: returns are lower and volatility higher when a relatively unpopular Congress is active. Public opinion appears to play a fundamental role in market prices. This is consistent with a mood-based explanation that sees Congress as ‘depressing’ the average investor. Alternatively, our results can also be reconciled with rational explanations that view Congressional activity as a proxy for regulatory uncertainty or rent-seeking behavior.
“A man was jailed by a Kemerovo region court on Thursday for assaulting a Gypsy fortune teller who predicted that he would be jailed, the Investigative Committee said.”—Marginal Revolution [via pegobry via woody via abr]
“Nato da una famiglia di origine libanese, [Paul Anka] divenne famoso a soli sedici anni nel 1957 con Diana, canzone scritta per un amore non ricambiato e dedicata alla baby sitter di famiglia di qualche anno più grande di lui.”—Paul Anka - Wikipedia
“Il 16 marzo 1978, mentre aspettava l’autobus sotto casa per recarsi ad una lezione di algebra, [Pannofino] fu tra i testimoni oculari della strage di via Fani - nella quale fu rapito Aldo Moro e persero la vita i cinque uomini della sua scorta - e per questo venne anche interrogato dai carabinieri, come da lui stesso dichiarato in un’intervista rilasciata a Rai Radio Tre.”—Francesco Pannofino - Wikipedia
“Come molti uomini spinti dall’ambizione, Stalin era piuttosto basso, sul metro e cinquantotto circa. Si aumentava la statura di due o tre centimetri con scarpe fatte apposta.”—Robert Conquest, Il grande terrore - Le purghe di Stalin negli anni Trenta, Mondadori, 1968, p. 99 [via Metilparaben via phonkmeister]
“A che genere di uomini appartengo? A quello di chi prova piacere nell’essere confutato, se dice cosa non vera, e nel confutare, se qualcuno non dice il vero, e che, senza dubbio, accetta di essere confutato con un piacere non minore di quello che prova confutando […]. Se dunque anche tu sostieni di essere un uomo di questo genere, discutiamo pure: altrimenti, se credi sia meglio smettere, lasciamo perdere e chiudiamo il discorso.”—Platone, Gorgia [via Paperdoll]
“I can’t remember the last time I saw two people really falling in love in a movie. Now all we get is the meet cute, a montage, a kiss, then acoustic song into fade out. Nothing experiential, only movies manufactured from movies.”—Tragedy of Comecy - NYTimes.com